12 (Breeskin 22)
Torero and Young Girl
Alternate title(s): After the Bullfight; After the Bull-fight; Girl and Torero; Il torrero [sic]; Offering the Panal; Offering the Panale [sic]; Offering the Panale [sic] to the Bullfighter; Offering the Panal to the Toreador; Offering the Panale [sic] to the Torero; Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter; Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter (Offrant le "panal" au "torero"); Offering the Panal to the Toreador; Offering the Panal to the Torero; Offering Water to the Torero; Offrant le panal au torero; Spanish Matador; Toreador; Torero and Girl; Toreador and Young Girl; Torero à qui une jeune fille offre un verre d'eau; Un torero et une jeune fille; Young Lady Offering the Panal to the Toreador; Young Woman Offering the Panal to the Toreador
1873
Oil on canvas
39 5/8 x 33 1/2 in. (100.65 x 85.09 cm)
Inscribed lower right: Mary S. Cassatt./Seville./1873.
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts

provenance / ownership history
Mr. Engrand, Paris
Mr. Parisot, Paris
to Durand-Ruel, New York, May 1947
to Carroll Carstairs, New York, June 20, 1947
to M. Knoedler & Co., New York (stock #A3736)
to Robert Sterling Clark, October 1947
to the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1955

exhibition history
1873 Cincinnati Expo: #250, as Il torrero
1873 Salon: #1372, as Offrante le "panal" au "torero" [sic], under the name Mary Stevenson
1874 National Academy NY: #280, as Offering the Panale to the Bullfighter
1876 De Sales: no catalogue located, as yet
1878 Massachusetts Mechanic: #176, as After the Bull-fight
1878 Pennsylvania Academy: #192, as Spanish Matador, lent by H. Teubner
1958 Clark Institute: no #, ill., as Torero and Young Girl, lent by M. Knoedler & Co., Paris
1993 Equitable NY: #12, ill., as Offering the Panale [sic] to the Bullfighter
1996--97 Knoedler NY: no #, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter, lent by the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute
1998--99 Chicago AIC: #5, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter (Offrant le "panal" au "torero"), lent by the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute (Chicago, Boston, Washington)
2003 Met Museum NY: #201, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter

published references
NY Times 1873: p. 1, as Offering Water to the Torero
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin 1873a: p. 1, as Offering Water to the Torero
Philadelphia Evening Bulletin 1874b: p. 2, as "superb Spanish scenes"
Philadelphia Telegraph 1878: p. 4, as Spanish Matador
Clement and Hutton 1880: p. 123, as After the Bull-fight
Boston Evening Transcript 1914: p. 11, as "a girl offering a glass of water to a bullfighter"
Cortissoz 1923: p. 185, as "girl offering a glass of water"
Paris 1944: p. 141, as "young girl offering water"
Breeskin 1948: p. 11, as "young girl offering a glass of water to a torero"
Faison 1958: p. 51, as Girl and Torero
Monro and Monro 1964: p. 91, as Torero and Young Girl
Carson 1966: p. 10, as "a torero"
Sweet 1966: p. 26, as Toreador
Sweet 1967: p. 35, as Offrant le panal au torero
Bullard 1972: p. 13, as Torero and Young Girl
Hale, N. 1975: pp. 52, 53, 55, as Offrant le panal au torero; pp. 79, 94, as After the Bullfight
Yaegashi and Kashiwa 1978: p. 1; p.2, ill.
Breeskin 1979: p. 12, as "young girl offering a glass of water to a torero"
Roudebush 1979: p. 8; p. 10, ill.; p. 91, as Torero and Young Girl
Love 1980: p. 11, as Toreador and Young Girl
Pollock 1980: pp. 9, 28; p. 34, ill.; p. 65, as Torero and Young Girl
Teilman 1981: pp. 89, 101n4, as Torero and Young Girl
Rubinstein 1982: p. 132, as Toreador and Young Girl
Gerdts 1984: p. 32, ill.; p. 34, as Torero and Young Girl
Mathews 1984: pp. 67, 68; p. 69, ill.; p. 344, as Torero and Young Girl; p. 140n2, as After the Bull-Fight; letters: Emily Sartain to John Sartain, May 8, 1873, p. 118, as "her Salon picture"; Emily Sartain to MC, [rough draft, c. May 25, 1875], pp. 127--28, as "the Spanish Salon picture"; Robert Cassatt to Alexander Cassatt, October 4, 1878, p. 138, as "some of Mary's pictures . . . have been sent to the Boston exhbition"; Katherine Cassatt to Alexander Cassatt, November 22 [1878], p. 141, as "Torero & girl"
Seldin 1984: n.p., as Torero and Young Girl
Lindsay 1985: pp. 19, 23, 33; p. 37, ill.; pp. 90, 95n7, as Torero and Young Girl
Spassky 1985: p. 630, as Torero and Young Girl
Gregory and Lyon 1987: p. 57, ill., as Torero and Young Girl
Mathews 1987: p. 16, ill.; pp. 25--26, as Torero and Young Girl
Conrads 1990: p. 27; p. 29, ill.; p. 30, as Offrant le panal au torero
Fink 1990: p. 147, ill.; pp. 197, 392, as Torero and Young Girl
Effeny 1991: pp. 11, 44; p. 45, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Toreador
Wiser 1991: p. 43, as Torero and Young Girl
Gerdts and Dearinger 1992: p. 84, as Torero and Young Girl
Mathews 1994: pp. 83, 85; p. 86, ill., as Torero and Young Girl
Boone 1995: p. 59, ill., as Offering the Panale to the Bullfighter
Constantino 1995: p. 8; p. 18, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Toreador
Boone 1998: p. 54, as Offering the Panale to the Bullfighter
Pollock 1998: p. 10, as Offering the Panal; pp. 104--05, as Young Woman Offering the Panal to the Toreador and Offering the Panal; p. 107, ill., as Young Lady Offering the Panal to the Toreador
Robinson, J. 1999: pp. 28--29, as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter
Roldán 2003: p. 396, as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter
Weinberg 2003: p. 283, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter
Webster 2004: p. 21, as Offering the Panal to the Bullfighter
Meyers 2005: p. 252, as Torero and Young Girl
Boone 2007: p. 88, ill. (detail); p. 103; p, 105, ill., as Offering the Panal to the Toreador; p. 106, as "accepting the panal"; pp. 108, 109--10, as Offering the Panal

commentary

Torero and Young Girl was accepted at the Salon of 1873 where it was listed in the exhibition catalogue under the name "Mary Stevenson-Cassatt," although it was signed "Mary S. Cassatt./Seville./1873."[1] (In 1874, the artist began to show at the Salon under the name "Mary Cassatt," while previous to 1873 she used the name "Mary Stevenson.") The painting must have been completed in time to send from Spain to Paris where the Salon opened on May 1.

Like On the Balcony during the Carnival, Torero and Young Girl represents a subject with amorous connotations. Works like these may have been intended to appeal to an American audience, as M. Elizabeth Boone has argued,[2] and when Torero and Young Girl was exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1878, a Philadelphia Daily Evening Telegraph critic described it as "a very life-like study of a Spanish bull-fighter coquetting with a tabernera, who is offering him liquid refreshment."[3] (He is dipping a honeycomb—panal—into the glass of water she holds.)

Whereas On the Balcony during the Carnival takes a fairly conventional approach to the picture plane, Torero and Young Girl repeats a device found in one of Cassatt's Parma pictures, The Bacchante, in which an elbow points directly out of the canvas. But, as Margaret C. Conrads observes, while its composition may derive from Italian Mannerist precedent, Torero and Young Girl is no longer informed by the idealizing tendencies of Correggio in particular.[4] Rather, it is aligned with the Spanish tradition of realism typified by artists such as Jusepe de Ribera and Francisco de Goya.

Furthermore, though painted in Spain and representing a typical Iberian subject, Torero and Young Girl reflects a Northern as well as Spanish approach to realism, likely stimulated by the rich collection of Flemish and Netherlandish paintings Cassatt saw at the Prado. The arm-akimbo pose held by both of Cassatt's models is a common motif in art from the Low Countries and one that generally has gendered connotations signifying self-possession and nobility in men but vulgarity and argumentativeness among women. Cassatt's interpretation of the pose, too, speaks to her ideas about women, for her female figure appears appealing but not too aggressive despite the traditionally unpleasant implications of the arms-akimbo stance for women.[5]

Torero and Young Girl looks forward to Cassatt's modernist work not only in its relation to theories of Impressionist pose and gesture, which valued the immediate legibility of bodily attitudes, but also in its approach to paint handling. Whereas in On the Balcony during the Carnival, she sought to represent a variety of materials (cloth, metal, stone), in Torero and Young Girl, Cassatt concentrated more closely on an assortment of fabrics, which are represented with broad strokes and impasto touches that reveal her study of the Spanish and Northern masters. Likewise, the bullfighting picture shows an interest in pattern that will come to occupy her in later works.

After the Salon of 1873 closed, Torero and Young Girl was sent to the United States, where it was shown at the Cincinnati Industrial Exhibition beginning in September, and then at the National Academy of Design in New York from April to June 1874. It is next known at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1878, where it was listed as being lent by H. Teubner. According to Frederick Sweet, Hermann (or Herman) Teubner was a Philadelphia art dealer and gilder.[6] While information about him is scarce, a few family letters from 1878 shed some light on his role with regard to Cassatt's work. He appears to have worked at times in concert with a Mrs. Mitchell, the widow of a Philadelphia merchant. Robert Cassatt described her in a letter from October 4, 1878, as a woman who, after her husband's death, "has been struggling hard to make a living for herself & younger children—and among other means is trying to sell pictures."[7] Robert Cassatt then stated, "I believe she & Teubner work in each others interests," and indeed it appears as if they both exhibited and attempted to sell the same group of Cassatt's works in the United States.

Teubner was listed as the lender of Torero and Young Girl to the forty-ninth annual exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, which ran from April 22 to June 2, 1878. However, Robert Cassatt in the October 4, 1878, letter mentioned this painting as one of the works Mitchell had taken to the U.S. "in June last" (he must have been off by a few months) and had sent to the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association exhibition, which opened in early September 1878. It would seem, then, that Mitchell and Teubner were both involved with the same group of pictures, a situation that was not without tension. As Robert Cassatt, in a letter dated December 13, 1878, explained to Alexander:

Teübner has 15 of her pictures on hand unsold or had when last heard from—Now he is either scheming to tire her out & get the choice of them, himself, for nothing or else he is asking such high prices as drives purchasers away—Mame offered through Mrs. Mitchell to take 700$ clear for the lot, but Teübner made no reply—I do not think there is any doubt but that they would sell for that money at public sale—The scamp would not even risk the framing himself but managed to get you to pay for it—Gard however has orders to reimburse you for that—In short you see, we must get rid of Teübner I hope it is already done but in fear that it may not be repeat all this.[8]

Given the ownership history of Torero and Young Girl, it seems unlikely that either Mitchell or Teubner bought it outright or had any success in selling it, for the painting is next known with a Mr. Engrand of Paris according to the archives of Galeries Durand-Ruel.

PAI

[1] Cassatt was thus listed under "S" in the Salon catalogue, which was organized alphabetically by artists' surnames.

[2] On this topic, see Elizabeth M. Boone, "Bullfights and Balconies: Flirtation and Majismo in Mary Cassatt's Spanish Paintings of 1872–73," American Art 9 (Spring 1995), pp. 55–71.

[3] "The Fine Arts," Philadelphia Daily Evening Telegraph, April 25, 1878, p. 4.

[4] Margaret C. Conrads, American Paintings and Sculpture at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute (New York: Hudson Hills, 1990), p. 28.

[5] See [Louis Emile Edmond] Duranty, "Promenades au Louvre: Remarques sur le geste," Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1877), pp. 19–37, 172–80, 281–89; and "The New Painting: Concerning a Group of Artists Exhibiting at the Durand-Ruel Galleries" (1876), in The New Painting, Impressionism 1874–1886, ed. and trans. Charles S. Moffett (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 37–49. For the relation between Duranty and Cassatt, see Pamela A. Ivinski, "Mary Cassatt, the Maternal Body, and Modern Connoisseurship" (PhD diss., City University of New York, 2003), pp. 55–58.

[6] Frederick A. Sweet, Miss Mary Cassatt: Impressionist from Pennsylvania (Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1966), p. 36n9. The Cassatt family sometimes spelled Teubner's name using an umlaut, but scholars including Sweet and Mathews have not.

[7] Robert Cassatt to Alexander Cassatt [Paris], October 4, 1878, in Cassatt and Her Circle: Selected Letters, ed. Nancy Mowll Mathews (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984), p. 138. Mrs. Mitchell's first name has not been discovered.

[8] Robert Cassatt to Alexander Cassatt [Paris], December 13, 1878, in Mathews 1984, p. 143.

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keywords:
 woman
 girl
 bullfighter
 Spanish
 costume
 red
 white
 sash
 dress
 flower
 glass
 man
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