201 (Breeskin 241)
Madame and Her Maid
Alternate title(s): Deux femmes (Madame et sa femme de chambre); Madame et sa femme de chambre
c. 1893--97
Pastel on paper
20 1/2 x 29 1/8 in. (52.07 x 73.98 cm)
Inscribed lower right: Mary Cassatt
Last known when sold at Sotheby's, New York, 1985

provenance / ownership history
Likely with Ambroise Vollard, Paris
private collection, Paris
Arthur Tooth & Sons, London, by 1957
Florence J. Gould, New York, by 1970
to Gould estate sale, Sotheby's, New York, April 24, 1985, #26, ill., as Deux femmes (Madame et sa femme de chambre)

exhibition history
1957 Tooth London: #8, ill., as Madame et sa femme de chambre
1970 National Gallery DC: #56, ill., as Madame and Her Maid, lent by Mrs. Florence Gould

published references
Illustrated London News 1957b: p. 895, ill., as Madame et sa femme de chambre
Hale, N. 1975: p. 170, as Madame and Her Maid
Ivinski 2004c: pp. 150--51, as Madame and Her Maid


Ambroise Vollard likely owned Madame and Her Maid, given that he handled most of the Cassatt pastels from which counterproofs were taken. Two counterproofs after this pastel are known to exist.

Florence J. Gould (1895–1983) devoted her life to fostering French-American cultural, social, and scientific exchange, a mission that continues through the work of her eponymous foundation. Born the daughter of a French publisher in San Francisco, Gould moved in 1906 to Paris, where she eventually became active in literary and artistic circles. With her husband Frank Jay Gould (son of the American railroad tycoon Jay Gould), she owned casinos, hotels, and restaurants; collected French Impressionist paintings; and hosted salons in the Goulds' home in Juan-les-Pins, France.


Madame and Her Maid, 1894, pastel counterproof on Japan paper, 19 7/8 x 28 1/2 in. (50.5 x 72.5 cm). (Photograph provided by Adelson Galleries, New York, N.Y.) [view all counterproofs]
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